Inversion of Array

Medium

Array inversion is a concept that plays a significant role in algorithms and data manipulation. In this article, we'll delve into the world of array inversion, exploring its meaning, working principles, and implementation in C++. We will cover real-world applications, examples, and analyze time and space complexities to provide a thorough understanding of this important topic.

 

What is Array Inversion?

Array inversion refers to the process of counting the number of pairs of indices (i, j) such that i < j and array[i] > array[j]. In simpler terms, it quantifies the number of elements that are out of order in relation to each other.

 

Working of Array Inversion:

  1. Pair Comparison: For each pair of indices (i, j) in the array where i < j, check if array[i] is greater than array[j].
  2. Counting Inversions: Increment a counter whenever array[i] is greater than array[j], indicating an inversion.

 

Code

// C++ Code

#include <iostream>

// Function to invert an array
void invertArray(int arr[], int length) {
   for (int i = 0; i < length / 2; ++i) {
       // Swap elements at positions i and length-i-1
       std::swap(arr[i], arr[length - i - 1]);
   }
}

int main() {
   // Example array
   int myArray[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
   int arrayLength = sizeof(myArray) / sizeof(myArray[0]);

   // Print original array
   std::cout << "Original array: ";
   for (int i = 0; i < arrayLength; ++i) {
       std::cout << myArray[i] << " ";
   }
   std::cout << std::endl;

   // Invert the array
   invertArray(myArray, arrayLength);

   // Print inverted array
   std::cout << "Inverted array: ";
   for (int i = 0; i < arrayLength; ++i) {
       std::cout << myArray[i] << " ";
   }
   std::cout << std::endl;

   return 0;
}

 

The invertArray function is responsible for reversing the order of elements in the array. The std::swap function is used to swap elements at positions i and length-i-1 within the loop. The main function demonstrates how to use this function with a sample array.

Here's the step-by-step breakdown for the example array [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]:

  • Original array: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
  • After the first iteration of the loop: [5, 2, 3, 4, 1]
  • After the second iteration: [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]

Now, the array is inverted. The logic is similar to the Python example, where elements are swapped starting from both ends and moving towards the middle of the array.

 

Example

Let's implement a simple C++ program to calculate the number of inversions in an array.

// C++ Code

#include <iostream>
#include <vector>

class ArrayInversionCounter {
private:
   long long mergeAndCount(std::vector<int>& arr, int l, int m, int r) {
       int n1 = m - l + 1;
       int n2 = r - m;

       std::vector<int> left(n1), right(n2);

       for (int i = 0; i < n1; i++)
           left[i] = arr[l + i];
       for (int j = 0; j < n2; j++)
           right[j] = arr[m + 1 + j];

       long long count = 0;

       int i = 0, j = 0, k = l;
       while (i < n1 && j < n2) {
           if (left[i] <= right[j]) {
               arr[k++] = left[i++];
           } else {
               arr[k++] = right[j++];
               count += n1 - i;
           }
       }

       while (i < n1)
           arr[k++] = left[i++];
       while (j < n2)
           arr[k++] = right[j++];

       return count;
   }

   long long mergeSortAndCount(std::vector<int>& arr, int l, int r) {
       long long count = 0;
       if (l < r) {
           int m = l + (r - l) / 2;

           count += mergeSortAndCount(arr, l, m);
           count += mergeSortAndCount(arr, m + 1, r);

           count += mergeAndCount(arr, l, m, r);
       }
       return count;
   }

public:
   long long countInversions(std::vector<int>& arr) {
       return mergeSortAndCount(arr, 0, arr.size() - 1);
   }
};

int main() {
   ArrayInversionCounter inversionCounter;

   std::vector<int> arr = {1, 20, 6, 4, 5};

   long long inversions = inversionCounter.countInversions(arr);

   std::cout << "Array Inversions: " << inversions << std::endl;

   return 0;
}
Output
Array Inversions: 5

 

Explanation
  • The code now encapsulates the array inversion counting logic within the ArrayInversionCounter class.
  • The mergeSortAndCount function recursively divides the array and counts inversions during the merge process.
  • The mergeAndCount function counts inversions when merging two sorted subarrays.
  • In the main function, an instance of ArrayInversionCounter is created, and the countInversions method is invoked on the array {1, 20, 6, 4, 5}.
  • The output, "Array Inversions: 5", indicates that there are 5 inversions in the given array.

 

Time and Space Complexity

  1. Time Complexity: The time complexity of the provided algorithm is O(n log n) due to the merge sort.
  2. Space Complexity: The space complexity is O(n) as additional space is required for merging subarrays.

 

Use Cases

  1. Sorting Algorithms: Inversions are crucial in analyzing and understanding the performance of sorting algorithms.
  2. Financial Data Analysis: Array inversion can be applied in analyzing financial time series data to identify anomalies.
  3. Data Compression: Inversions play a role in algorithms for data compression, where patterns of disorder may indicate compressible structures.

 

Array inversion is a fundamental concept with applications ranging from algorithm analysis to data compression. Understanding array inversion equips developers with insights that are valuable in algorithm design and real-world data analysis.



Thanks for feedback.



Read More....
Find the no of islands in a 2D Array/Matrix
3 Sum
4 Sum - Find four elements that sum to a given target value
Chocolate Distribution Problem
Find the missing number in a sorted array
Best Time to Buy and Sell Stock